The Basics

Basically, it is multicolor shapes forming a design. Each shape/color is a layer. Each layer is part of a system that defines the function of the collective.

Basic layout of a transistor and a resistor
Basic layout of a transistor and a resistor

I wont be describing the functions of the components here. This page is about my work, which did not include the circuit design aspect of IC design… Later on, you would discover that my work is only specialize in layout and verification of IC design. 

In a nutshell, my 1st job after graduating from Ngee Ann in 1994, was to use a CAD programme to put shapes together and check that they are put together right, so that it will work. This job is known as layout design, and the checking is termed physical verification.
Okay, so you are starting with a blank page here, and a schematic that is provided by the circuit design guru. 1st step, lets put the devices on this sheet. There are some great tools out there right now for automating alot of this design work, but say if you just want to do it the old fashion way, the 1st shapes that you will be putting on are the “Diffusion”, follow by “Polysilicon”, then “Contacts”, “PPlus” and “Nwell”. Each of these layers serve a purpose. Its complicated, so I wont try to explain here in the basics.
There you have it, if you arranged it right, you have just formed your 1st PMOS transistor! Hooray! There is alot more in the basics that I am not describing here. This page is not a book to teach IC layout design, only meant to provide a little insight into this job. So if you were looking for the details, get the IC layout book that is available at Amazon. .. and remember, the book is only as good as what you read from it. The book will give good description on every aspect of the basics, which you can use to gain fundamental knowledge of this subject. Finally, after all that study and with a bit of creativity, you should be able to develop methods to handle the more challenging situations in actual layout design. 
Learning the IC design fundamentals is only 1 aspect of the job. The other is aspect is computing to efficiently complete the design.
Putting it together

A chip is really build up of millions (.. billions) of micro devices in a very small area..(up to 3sq”? .. ) Technology is moving so quickly and I fail to read enuf to catch up… even tho I am involved in 28/32nm, I really dunno how big designs are getting, since my job now is enablement of the design, but not doing the design itself.. (what does that mean? This will be discussed later) ..

So how do you build up billions of devices on a chip? It would be impossible without 1) CAD programs 2) Modular design methods 3) Automation.


< taking a break > to be continued.


3 Responses to “what is IC layout design”

  1. October 15, 2009 at 5:43 pm

    Transistorized IC schematics are advancing, and the best have refined pico/femtoscale physics models for the best performance on nanotechnical quantum effects and relativistic factors. This data density of modeling is the key to scale reduction which exponentiates chip value as well as IC research progress.
    Recent advancements in quantum science have produced the picoyoctometric, 3D, interactive video atomic model imaging function, in terms of chronons and spacons for exact, quantized, relativistic animation. This format returns clear numerical data for a full spectrum of variables. The atom’s RQT (relative quantum topological) data point imaging function is built by combination of the relativistic Einstein-Lorenz transform functions for time, mass, and energy with the workon quantized electromagnetic wave equations for frequency and wavelength.

    The atom labeled psi (Z) pulsates at the frequency {Nhu=e/h} by cycles of {e=m(c^2)} transformation of nuclear surface mass to forcons with joule values, followed by nuclear force absorption. This radiation process is limited only by spacetime boundaries of {Gravity-Time}, where gravity is the force binding space to psi, forming the GT integral atomic wavefunction. The expression is defined as the series expansion differential of nuclear output rates with quantum symmetry numbers assigned along the progression to give topology to the solutions.

    Next, the correlation function for the manifold of internal heat capacity energy particle 3D functions is extracted by rearranging the total internal momentum function to the photon gain rule and integrating it for GT limits. This produces a series of 26 topological waveparticle functions of the five classes; {+Positron, Workon, Thermon, -Electromagneton, Magnemedon}, each the 3D data image of a type of energy intermedon of the 5/2 kT J internal energy cloud, accounting for all of them.

    Those 26 energy data values intersect the sizes of the fundamental physical constants: h, h-bar, delta, nuclear magneton, beta magneton, k (series). They quantize nuclear dynamics by acting as fulcrum particles. The result is the picoyoctometric, 3D, interactive video atomic model data point imaging function, responsive to keyboard input of virtual photon gain events by relativistic, quantized shifts of electron, force, and energy field states and positions.

    Images of the h-bar magnetic energy waveparticle of ~175 picoyoctometers are available online at with the complete RQT atomic modeling manual titled The Crystalon Door, copyright TXu1-266-788. TCD conforms to the unopposed motion of disclosure in U.S. District (NM) Court of 04/02/2001 titled The Solution to the Equation of Schrodinger.

  2. January 14, 2011 at 8:15 am

    IC Design service is best provided

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